What is Data and Information

Data are plain facts. The word "data" is plural for "datum." When data are processed, organized, structured or presented in a given context so as to make them useful, they are called Information. It is not enough to have data . Data themselves are fairly useless, but when these data are interpreted and processed to determine its true meaning, they becomes useful and can be named as Information.

Defining Database

Definitions of Database : An organized body of related information. In computing, a database can be defined as a structured collection of records or data that is stored in a computer so that a program can consult it to answer queries. The records retrieved in answer to queries become information that can be used to make decisions. An organized collection of records presented in a standardized format searched by computers. A collection of data organized for rapid search and retrieval by a computer.

Objectives of the Database

A database is a collection of interrelated data stored with minimum redundancy to serve many users quickly and efficiently. The general objective is to make information access easy, quick, inexpensive, and flexible for the user. 

In data base design, several specific objectives can be considered as follows:

(i) Controlled Redundancy
(ii) Ease of Learning and Use
(iii) Data Independence
(iv) Most Information in Low Cost
(v) Accuracy and Integrity
(vi) Recovery from failure
(vii) Privacy and Security
(viii) Performance

Database Management System a.k.a DBMS

A collection of interrelated and persistent data (usually referred to as the Database (DB)). A set of application programs used to access, update and manage that data (which form the data Management System (MS)).

The goal of a DBMS is to provide an environment that is both convenient and efficient to use in : Retrieving information from the database. Storing information into the database.

Databases are usually designed to manage large bodies of information. This involves : Definition of structures for information storage (data modeling). Provision of mechanisms for the manipulation of information (file and systems structure, query processing). Providing for the safety of information in the database (crash recovery and security).

Components of DBMS

four basic components of Database Management System : (i) Data : Raw facts which we want to feed in the computer. (ii) Hardware : On which the data to be processed. (iii) Software : The interface between the hardware and user, by which the data will change into the information. (iv) User : There are so many types of users some of them are application programmer, endcase users and DBA.
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