They express numbers with decimals and/or exponents. They can include either a decimal point, an e character (that expresses "by ten at the Xth height", where X is an integer value that follows the e character), or both a decimal point and an e character:

3.14159    // 3.14159
6.02e23    // 6.02 x 10^23
1.6e-19    // 1.6 x 10^-19
3.0        // 3.0 

These are four valid numbers with decimals expressed in C++. The first number is PI, the second one is the number of Avogadro, the third is the electric charge of an electron (an extremely small number) -all of them approximated- and the last one is the number three expressed as a floating-point numeric literal.

The default type for floating point literals is double. If you explicitly want to express a float or a long double numerical literal, you can use the f or l suffixes respectively:

3.14159L   // long double
6.02e23f   // float 

Any of the letters that can be part of a floating-point numerical constant (e, f, l) can be written using either lower or uppercase letters without any difference in their meanings.

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